Carls and his wife Alice-Catherine Carls are working on a major project that will examine Europe at war from 1914-1945. Through the years, the two historians have made scores of trips to Europe. But Carls says there was "no glamour" and there were "no trips to Paris" during his research leave. Carls remained in his home office, looking into a computer screen and reading a "huge stack of books." He says long, uninterrupted periods of time are an essential resource on such a far-reaching academic project.
Carls: "It looks quite doable when you start, and you figure you can knock it out in short order. But I should know better, because I've done projects before and you think that you can get them done quickly and in fact it ends up taking much more time than you originally anticipated."