89. It is also acknowledged that, were this study to be extended beyond its present scope, a variety of texts should be included to guard against the possibility that any observed relationship between mensural placement and textual accent is attributable to unique features of a single text rather than to sensitivity to textual accent in general.
90. For an excellent historical overview of printing technology, see Philip Gaskell, A New Introduction to Bibliography (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972).
91. I had access to microfilms of Willaert (1542), all three of the Lasso prints, as well as Magnum opus musicum (1604) which is discussed below.
92. Orlando di Lasso, Magnum opus musicum, ed. Ferdinand and Rudolphe di Lasso (Munich: N. Henricus, 1604).
93. Peter Bergquist, General Preface to The Complete Motets (Madison, Wis.: A-R Editions, 1996-).
94. Willi Apel, The Notation of Polyphonic Music, 900-1600, 5th ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: The Mediaeval Academy of America, 1953): 148 and 194.
95. David Huron, The Humdrum Toolkit: Reference Manual (Stanford, California: Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities, 1995).
96. David Huron, "Error Categories, Detection, and Reduction in a Musical Database," Computers and the Humanities 22/4 (1988): 253-64.
97. Boone, "Marking Mensural Time."
98. This test assesses the significance of the difference between an observed ratio and an expected ratio. It produces a p value (ranging from 0 to 1) which indicates the probability that the observed ratio occurred as the result of chance. A high p value indicates a high probability that the observed ratio occurred as the result of chance, while a low p value indicates a low probability of the same, i.e., that the observed ratio is likely to have been caused not by chance but by some significant phenomenon. The chi-squared test is usually used as an objective standard for the testing of hypotheses. Depending on the repercussions of arriving at an incorrect conclusion, different p-value thresholds or "confidence levels" can be adopted as the operational definition of statistical significance. In this study, the 0.05 (i.e., 5%) confidence level has been adopted.
99. This would be 1:1 if breve and semibreve positions were not differentiated with regard to note onsets.
100. One might argue, however, given the relatively minor repercussions of an incorrect conclusion compared to, say, a medical study, that a looser standard could be adopted.
101. Boone, "Marking Mensural Time."
102. The "Pater noster" text contains no words longer than five syllables, although such words do occur in Latin.
103. A drawback of the "Pater noster" text is its lack of penult-accented tetrasyllables.
104. (N values in the captions indicate the total number of instances of the particular word class being measured. If desired, raw scores for individual mensural positions can be derived by multiplying the percent by N.)
105. Boone, "Marking Mensural Time," 23.
106. David Huron and Matthew Royal, "What is Melodic Accent? Converging Evidence from Musical Practice," Music Perception 13/4 (1996): 489-516.
107. Joseph Thomassen, "Melodic accent: Experiments and a tentative model," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 71 (1982): 1595 1605, and idem, "Erratum," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 73 (1983): 373.
108. Huron and Royal, "Melodic Accent," 494.
109. For the textual accent / agogic accent pair, syllable durations rather than note durations were used in order to account for melismatically-set syllables.