This editorial style guide was prepared by the Office of University Communications and is based on the Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual, the A Manual of Style (The University of Chicago Press) and currently accepted style for universities in the United States.
The appendix to the guide contains official names of Union University buildings, facilities, centers, programs, schools and colleges, offices, publications and organizations.
For names of persons, up-to-date personal title or degree information, please refer to the Union University web site, undergraduate catalogue, graduate catalogue or alumni directory.
- Acceptable if part of formal name (Morgan Stanley & Co.).
- Avoid in running text (Professor Smith, not Prof. Smith).
- With place names, abbreviate St. (St. Louis) but spell out Fort (Fort Lauderdale).
- U.S. is acceptable as an adjective, but use United States for the noun. U.S. is one of the few abbreviations for which periods should be used.
- Acceptable on second and subsequent references after a first spelled-out use.
- Acceptable without first spelling out if initials are widely recognized (e.g., CEO, SAT, NCAA, AIDS, HMO, NASA, FBI).
- In running text, spell out North, South, East, West before the street name; spell out Street, Avenue, Road, Drive, Boulevard, and the like. In mailing panels, the name of the state may be given with postal abbreviations.
- Use official names of offices (Office of the Provost, not Provost's Office).
- Union addresses generally follow this order:
name of department/school
1050 Union University Drive
Jackson, Tenn. 38305
- Advisor is the preferred spelling.
- In alumni newsletters, and often in other publications, it is desirable to note that a person attended Union. Alumni status is granted to people who didn't leave Union with a degree. The year of graduation/withdrawing from the University is used in parentheses after the name: John Smith ('99) When necessary for clarification, the major and the year of graduation may be listed in parentheses after the name. Mary Smith (Spanish '99)
- The exception is for people with advanced degrees in the arts and sciences. Designate these by the degree followed by the field in lowercase: (PhD chemistry '99)
- Graduates of the year 2000 are designated with '00.
- Use only when it is part of a company or organization's formal name. Do not use in text to replace and. (College of Arts and Sciences, Cardinal & Cream)
- Do not use to form plurals (it should be 1940s, not 1940's) unless it would be confusing without (A's and B's, not As and Bs).
- Use apostrophes for master's and bachelor's degrees; doctoral degree or doctorate should be used rather than doctor's.
- Official names are capitalized (Department of Chemistry) and unofficial names are not (chemistry department).
- Capitalize: Board of Trustees, when referring to Union's
Commencement, when referring to Union's (2010 Commencement)
Conferences (Southern Baptists, Evangelicals and the Future of Denominationalism)
Geographical areas and localities (the Midwest, the South Side of Chicago, New York City)
Government bodies (the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Supreme Court)
Historical periods (the Depression, the Enlightenment)
Homecoming when referring to Union's, but lowercase in general use
Names referring to God (Jehovah, Christ, Christians); pronouns referring to God (He, Him, His); adjectives incorporating God's name vary (Christ-like, but godly)
Bible, but biblical
University when referring to Union. (The prospective student took a tour of the University.)
Words denoting family relationships used in place of a person's name (Grandmother Jones)
Registered trademarks (Xerox)
"The" in proper names (The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, The Jackson Sun; but the Southern Baptist Convention)
- Lowercase: job titles (the chief executive officer, the sales manager)
departments or offices that are not the official name (the alumni office)
nouns used with numbers to designate chapters, rooms, pages (chapter 1, room 234, page 1,986)
derivative adjectives (french fries)
simple directions (the west coast of Michigan)
captions for photos
- Use a caption if there is a person, place or situation that the reader is likely to want to identify.
- Indicate student class and major before name when three students or fewer are in a photo. (senior accounting major Brad Smith)
- Use (from left) or (front row, from left) if there might be confusion about identity.
- Do not use a middle initial if the full name with initial is already in the story.
- Do not use periods in captions that are not sentences, except to be consistent with other captions in the same spread or publication.
- Do not include the obvious (e.g., The group is standing by the copy machine).
- Catalogue is the correct spelling for Union University's publication in all references. For general use, catalog is correct.
- For example: "the 2010 Undergraduate Catalogue"; "You may verify major requirements by looking in the catalogue"; "We reviewed catalogs from 120 universities."
- Use instead of chairman (chair of the English department). An exception may be made for chairman of the board.
- Treat all citations within a publication consistently.
- Major U.S. cities do not need state identifiers in running text, with the exception of cities of the same name in different states. See "states" for a partial list.
- Cities commonly associated with a country do not need a country identification (London, Bangkok, Tokyo, Toronto).
- Do not use a comma before "and" or "or" in a series.
- Use commas before and after state names when they appear with cities. (Her brother moved to Lexington, Ky., after graduation.)
- If the day of the month appears, use a comma before and after the year (by the January 15, 2008, deadline).
- To avoid dating a publication, use a job title rather than a name in contact information unless there is a compelling reason for using a name.
- Union University's core values should be hyphenated, lowercase in body copy and capitalized in headings or headlines and always listed in this order:
excellence-driven, Christ-centered, people-focused, future-directed
Excellence-Driven | Christ-Centered | People-Focused | Future-Directed
- Use the name used by the company, including abbreviations and ampersands. However, Inc. or Ltd. usually may be dropped, and "the" should not be capitalized.
- Abbreviations are acceptable (Co., Corp., etc.) in notes, bibliographies, and lists.
- Do not use all caps unless the letters are individually pronounced (USX).
- Do not put in quotation marks.
- After a first reference, subsequent references generally use only a person's last name, except in obituaries. Mr., Mrs., Ms., Dr., Rev., Dean, and Professor should not be used in second references except in quoted material. An exception may be made for donors when a development officer requests it.
- See "degrees (academic)" and "Dr." for discussion of Dr.
- When you type a space and one hyphen between text, Microsoft Office Word automatically inserts an en dash ( – ). For example, if you type See pages 3 - 10, Word converts it to See pages 3 – 10.
- If you type two hyphens and do not include a space before the hyphens, an em dash ( — ) is created. For example, if you type Many pines--including ponderosa and lodgepole--grow here Word converts it to Many pines—including ponderosa and lodgepole—grow here.
- Use en dashes to denote a range (pages 40–48) and to join adjectives when one of the adjectives is already a compound (New York–Boston route).
- Dashes may be used for material that amplifies, explains or digresses. Commas often may be used for the same purpose.
- Use spaces around em dashes (the four states — Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana and Michigan — that border Lake Michigan).
- Hyphens, not en dashes, should be used in sports scores.
- Use an en dash to show a range of dates and do not repeat 20 (2007–08, not 2007–2008).
- If the day of the month appears, use a comma before and after the year (by the January 15, 2008, deadline).
- Do not use a comma between the month and the year alone (by the January 2008 deadline).
- Use the year with the month only if it is not the current year.
- Do not use st, nd, rd, th, even if dates are adjectives (March 1 event, not March 1st event).
- Months are not abbreviated
- Use numerals for decades (1960s or the '60s).
- Use periods in Ph.D., B.S., M.B.A., etc.
- Capitalize Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts
- Do not capitalize the field (Bachelor of Arts in philosophy) unless, of course, it is a proper noun (Bachelor of Arts in English) or part of the degree name (Master of Social Work)
- For people with Ph.D.'s, do not use Ph.D. after the name or Dr. before it in text. See further discussion under "Dr."
- Degrees generally are not given immediately after a name, with the occasional exception of lists. Then the highest degree earned is usually given.
- Use an apostrophe in bachelor's degree and master's degree. Do not use doctor's degree; doctoral degree or doctorate is correct.
departments and programs
- Full formal names of Union University departments and programs are capitalized (Department of Engineering).
- Shortened second mentions are lowercased (the engineering department).
- Do not use dorm when referring to Union University's residence accommodations.
- residence life staff, residence complexes, residence apartments or residence complex apartments
- Most style guides reserve Dr. for medical doctors and dentists, not Ph.D.'s. But using Dr. for M.D.'s and D.D.S.'s should be avoided as well.
- Instead, identify a specialty after the name or use some other language that implies a medical degree (Joseph Smith, cardiovascular surgeon).
- Use three dots with spaces around each ( . . . ), but close up the space between an ellipses point and a quotation mark (". . . ).
- If a sentence ends with ellipses, use a period ( . . . .) as well.
- One word; lowercase it except at the start of a sentence.
- Do not break a line after a period within an email address. Bring the period down to start the next line:
If an email address does not fit on one line, do not introduce hyphenation when breaking it.
If an email address is at the end of a sentence, include the final punctuation.
- Follows professor (professor emeritus, not emeritus professor).
- Use emerita for a woman.
- Use emeriti for the plural.
- Capitalize whether before or after the name.
- If in doubt about the correct title, call the provost's office.
- May be singular or plural, depending on the context, but be consistent within a context. Union University ordinarily uses "faculty members."
- Do not use. Use The First or Inaugural. An event must be held two consecutive years before it can be labeled annual.
- Capitalize formal name (Application for Undergraduate Admission), but do not use quotation marks or italics.
- Write out and hyphenate (two-thirds, three-fifths) in text.
- A fraction and a whole number appear as numerals with no space between them (3¼).
- Use whenever possible (chair, chairperson, police officer, etc.).
- One way to get around the his or her dilemma is to restructure the sentence in the plural. (Each student should purchase his/her own lab manual. Students should purchase their own lab manuals.)
- Union University Germantown or the Germantown extension of Union University or the Mid-South extension of Union University
grades, grade point average
- Use all capitals to abbreviate (GPA).
- Do not put in quotation marks.
- Use an apostrophe for plurals (A's, B's).
- Depending on the publication, it may be acceptable to abbreviate GPA in first reference.
- The use of downstyle or upper- and lowercase headlines is generally determined by the formality of the publication and the design, but once a style is chosen, it should be followed consistently within a publication. In downstyle headlines, the first word and proper nouns are capitalized. In upper- and lowercase headlines, every word is capitalized except articles (a, an, the), coordinate conjunctions (and, or, for, nor), prepositions, and "to" in infinitives.
- Union University Hendersonville or the Hendersonville extension of Union University or the Middle Tennessee extension of Union University
home school, home-schooled, home-schooler, home schooling
- In general, do not hyphenate words beginning with the prefixes co, non, pre, post, or re unless there is a possibility of confusion (co-op, post-master's) or the root word begins with a capital letter (post-Renaissance).
- Hyphenate words beginning with the prefix self.
- Hyphenate an adjective-noun modifier if there is a possibility of confusion (senior-class speaker). It is not necessary to hyphenate when the pair is familiar (high school student).
- Hyphenate compounds used as adjectives (decision-making), but not as nouns (decision maker).
- Hyphenate University-wide but not campuswide.
- Hyphenate missionary-in-residence, scholar-in-residence.
- Do not hyphenate a modifier that comes after the noun. (He is writer in residence. They live off campus.) An exception is part-time, which is always hyphenated.
- Do not hyphenate compounds with vice (vice chair, vice president).
- When more than one prefix is joined to a base word, hyphenate the prefixes standing alone (micro- and macroeconomics).
- Do not hyphenate fundraising, freelance, yearlong, health care, African American, Asian American.
- An en dash, not a hyphen, should be used with a range of dates (1967–69) or times (5–7 p.m.) or to join adjectives where one of them is already a compound (post–Civil War).
- Use middle initials in formal publications, unless a person prefers otherwise.
- Be consistent from person to person in use of the middle initial.
- Two initials should not be separated by a space (G.M. Savage Memorial Chapel).
- In scientific citations, it is acceptable to use only a single initial and a last name. A single initial should not be used in running text, however.
- Do not require end-of-line punctuation.
- Numbers greater than 10 may be spelled out.
- Street numbers may be spelled out.
- :00 or o'clock may be used in time.
jr., sr., III in names
- Do not set off by commas.
- Do not use hyphenated line breaks in headlines, invitations or display ads.
- Do not break a proper name or a hyphenated word except at the hyphen.
- Do not end a column at a hyphen or allow more than two consecutive lines to end in a hyphen.
- Do not use a colon after a verb or a preposition introducing a list. (including Ben, Julie and Pete not including: Ben, Julie and Pete) unless the introductory phrase contains some variation of "the following" or "as follows." (The 2011 committee includes the following: Joe Smith,…)
- Maintain parallel construction in listed items.
- Avoid numbering unless there will be a reference to the numbers in later text.
- If you must number a list in running text, place numbers (without periods) in parentheses.
- In vertical lists, use a period after each item if one or more is a complete sentence. In that case, the first words should be capitalized. Otherwise, capitalization of the first words depends on the context.
- Alphabetize or put listed items in some other logical order.
- No comma before Jr. or Sr. or III.
- No space between initials (W.D. Powell Theatre).
- Italicize unless the word has been Americanized or is commonly used (cum laude).
- One through nine spelled out; 10 and above in numerals, except that numbers of the same category should be treated alike within the same context.
- First through ninth spelled out; thereafter, 10th, 11th, etc.
- Use numerals with percent (7 percent), dollar sign ($3), temperature (8 degrees), scores (7-3), page (page 2), room (room 9), and chapter (chapter 6).
- Numbers beginning a sentence are always spelled out.
- For figures greater than 999,999, use million or billion (2.3 million, 4 billion).
- Use a comma in a figure greater than 1,000, unless it is a date, SAT score or temperature.
- For inclusive numbers, the second number should be represented by only its final two digits if its beginning digit(s) are the same as the first number's (pages 343 - 47).
- A dash should not be used as a substitute for "to" in a range (from 1967 to 1983, not from 1967 - 83).
- Capitalize when formal name (Office of the Provost); otherwise, lowercase (provost's office).
- Stephen Olford Center at Union University
over, more than
- More than is preferred. (More than 600 students enrolled in undergraduate courses.)
- Should be spelled out, one word.
- Capitalize and italicize only official, published titles (2011-2012 Undergraduate Academic Catalog, Unionite, The Torch); otherwise, lowercase (the catalogue).
- Reprinted matter with another publication's credit is not edited to house style.
- The department profile on Union's website and the undergraduate catalogue are good resources for double-checking the spelling of professors' names, although the website may not have the most up-to-date academic rank.
- Union University Alumni Directory may be used for checking alumni names and years/degrees.
smart quotes, straight quotes
- Smart (curved) quotation marks and smart apostrophes are typographically correct.
- Straight quotes are used to designate inches, straight apostrophes to designate feet.
- States should not be abbreviated when standing alone.
- In running text, use abbreviations, not postal codes.
- state abbreviations for lists, tables, congressmember IDs:
- Write IDs of members of Congress with a hyphen: Mark Udall (D-Colo.)
- Postal codes may be used when states appear with city names in class notes, tabular material and mailing addresses.
- official post office abbreviations for mailing addresses:
|Alabama: AL||Louisiana: LA||Ohio: OH|
|Alaska: AK||Maine: ME||Oklahoma: OK|
|Arizona: AZ||Maryland: MD||Oregon: OR|
|Arkansas: AR||Massachusetts: MA||Pennsylvania: PA|
|California: CA||Michigan: MI||Rhode Island: RI|
|Colorado: CO||Minnesota: MN||South Carolina: SC|
|Connecticut: CT||Mississippi: MS||South Dakota: SD|
|Delaware: DE||Missouri: MO||Tennessee: TN|
|Florida: FL||Montana: MT||Texas: TX|
|Georgia: GA||Nebraska: NE||Utah: UT|
|Hawaii: HI||Nevada: NV||Vermont: VT|
|Idaho: ID||New Hampshire: NH||Virginia: VA|
|Illinois: IL||New Jersey: NJ||Washington: WA|
|Indiana: IN||New Mexico: NM||West Virginia: WV|
|Iowa: IA||New York: NY||Wisconsin: WI|
|Kansas: KS||North Carolina: NC||Wyoming: WY|
|Kentucky: KY||North Dakota: ND|
- States are not required for major cities associated with a state. These include Atlanta, Baltimore, Berkeley, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Honolulu, Houston, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Nashville, New Orleans, New York, Oklahoma City, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle and St. Louis. If there is a major city of the same name in another state, however, include the state name.
- Use commas before and after state names when they appear with cities. (Her brother moved to Lexington, Ky., after graduation.)
- If a high school bears the name of its city, insert the state in parentheses.
- A similar rule applies to newspapers, but italicize the state within an italicized newspaper name.
- Aways use "er" ending except when referring to the formal name of a program or facility that uses the re spelling (W.D. Powell Theatre).
- Do not use :00 with a time unless it is a very formal publication in which it would be appropriate, such as invitations.
- Lowercase a.m. and p.m.
- It is sometimes permissible to remove the periods in a.m. and p.m. in tables and lists if space is tight, but use the periods in text.
- Noon, not 12 p.m. or 12 noon.
- Do not use a dash in place of "to" in a range of times introduced by from (from 5 to 7 p.m., not from 5 - 7 p.m.).
- Do not use o'clock unless it is in quoted material or contexts such as formal invitations.
titles (dissertations, theses)
- Capitalize and set in non-italicized type and within quotation marks.
titles (legal citations)
- Italicize and use v. for "versus" (Brown v. Board of Education).
- Names of associations, organizations, conferences, meetings, etc., follow the same guidelines as for compositions, except that the article the preceding a name is lowercased even when it is part of the formal title and the organization capitalizes it.
- Use the group's punctuation and abbreviations for its name.
- Use Co. when a business uses the word as part of its formal name. Inc., Corp., and Ltd. are usually not needed, but when used after the name of a corporate entity should be abbreviated.
- Such words as club, team and conference are lowercased when used alone. The exception to this is University when referring to Union.
- Uppercase preceding a name if it is a title by which the individual is called (Professor Smith, Dean Smith, Provost Joe Smith), but lowercase a functional title (program director Joe Smith).
- Capitalize endowed professorships whether before or after a name. Do not use "the" before endowed professorships, because in some cases there may be more than one person with the same title.
titles (publications and creative works)
- Titles of books, periodicals (including online magazines), movies, television series, plays, works of art, musical compositions (except those with generic titles, such as Symphony no. 5 in C Minor), collections of poetry and long poems published separately are italicized.
- Titles of lectures, speeches, episodes of television and radio series, songs, poems, articles from newspapers and periodicals, chapters, short stories, essays and individual parts of books are in non-italicized type and within quotation marks.
- Lowercase articles (a, an, the), coordinate conjunctions (and, or, for, nor), prepositions regardless of length and "to" in infinitives. Capitalize everything else, including those parts of speech if they appear as the first or last word in a title (On the Waterfront).
- Use official names instead of trying to be consistent about the use of in, of, dashes, or commas in indicating campus locations. A complete list appears in the annual American Council on Education directory.
the web and email
- Do not hyphenate email.
- One word: database, email, online, webcast, webcasting and webcam.
- Two words: web camera and home page.
- Lowercase: web, internet.
- World Wide Web is not needed; web is sufficient.
- http://, www and <> are not needed at the start of a web address.
- If an address does not fit on one line, do not use a hyphen when breaking it. An unavoidable line break should come after a punctuation mark (except a period) within a URL.
- Do not break a line after a period within a web or an email address. Bring the period down to start the next line
- Avoid lines of less than full measure (known in typesetting terms as widows) at the top of columns.
- Hyphenation that results in an incomplete word alone in the last line of a paragraph should be avoided.
Union University Official Names
Buildings and facilities
- Penick Academic Complex (PAC)
- G.M. Savage Memorial Chapel
- W.D. Powell Theatre
- Emma Waters Summar Library
- Fred DeLay Gymnasium
- E.T. "Rocky" Palmer Activity Complex/ Grace C. Williams Aquatic Center
- Union Station
- Blasingame Academic Complex (BAC)
- Hyran E. Barefoot Student Union Building (SUB)
- Harvey Auditorium
- Brewer Dining Hall
- Coburn Dining Hall
- Lexington Inn
- Barefoots Joe
- White Hall
- Jennings Hall
- Fesmire Fields and Field house
- Hammons Hall
- LifeWay Christian Store
- Miller Tower
- Smith Memorial Soccer Complex
- Luther Hall
- Providence Hall
- Warmath Residence Complex
- Fraternity Row
- Bowld Student Commons
- Quads Residence Complexes
- Heritage Residence Complex
- McAfee Commons
- Carl Grant Events Center
- Heritage Center
- Banquet Hall
- Provost and Executive Vice President for Strategic Initiatives
- Executive Vice President for Academic Administration
- Vice President for University Ministries
- Senior Vice President for Business and Financial Services
- Senior Vice President for University Relations and Athletics
- Senior Vice President for Enrollment Services
- Dean of Students
- Alumni Services
- Campus Reservations
- Center for Academic Services
- Chapel Facilitation
- Church Relations
- Counseling Services
- Creative Services
- Enrollment Services
- Facilities Management
- Financial Aid
- Health Services
- Human Resources
- Hundley Center for Academic Enrichment
- Information Technology
- Institutional Advancement
- Keystone Program
- Library Services
- Residence Life
- Residential Network Support
- Safety and Security
- Student Leadership and Engagement
- Student Programs
- Student Services/Dean of Students
- Testing Services
- Undergraduate Admissions
- University Communications
- University Ministries
- University Services
- Vocatio Center for Life Calling and Career
- Wellness Services
Colleges, Schools, Institutes, and Centers
- College of Arts and Sciences
- Communication Arts
- Computer Science
- Political Science
- Sociology and Family Studies
- McAfee School of Business Administration
- Business Administration
- School of Nursing
- College of Education and Human Studies
- Continuing Studies
- Physical Education, Wellness, and Sport
- Social Work
- Teacher Education Program
- School of Theology and Missions
- School of Pharmacy
- Institute for International and Intercultural Studies
- Institute for Intellectual Discipleship
- Center for Business and Economic Development
- Center for Educational Practice
- Center for Excellence in Health Care Practice
- Center for Faculty Development
- Center for Just and Caring Communities
- Center for Media, Faith and Culture
- Center for Politics and Religion
- Center for Racial Reconciliation
- Edward P. Hammons Center for Scientific Studies
- R.C. Ryan Center for Biblical Studies
- R.G. Lee Center for Christian Ministries
- Alliance Francophone
- Alpha Chi
- Alpha Psi Omega
- Alpha Sigma Lambda
- Alpha Tau Alpha
- Alpha Tau Omega
- American Advertising Federation-Union University
- Association for Computing Machinery
- Baptist Student Nursing Fellowship
- Cardinal & Cream
- Chi Omega
- College Democrats
- College Republicans
- Collegiate Music Educators Association
- Debate Team
- Digital Media Studies Society
- Honors Student Association
- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
- Inter-Fraternity Council
- International Justice Mission
- International Student Organization
- Kappa Delta
- Kappa Delta Pi
- Kappa Mu Epsilon
- Lambda Chi Alpha
- Ministerial Association
- Mu Kappa
- Music Ensembles
- Panhellenic Council
- Phi Alpha
- Phi Alpha Theta
- Phi Beta Lambda
- Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia
- Phi Theta Kappa Alumni Association
- Pi Kappa Lambda National Music Honor Society
- Psi Chi
- Psychology Club
- Public Relations Student Society of America
- Rutledge Honorary History Club
- Sigma Alpha Epsilon
- Sigma Alpha Iota
- Sigma Delta
- Sigma Pi Sigma
- Sigma Tau Delta
- Sigma Theta Tau
- Social Work Reaches Out
- Society of Physics Students
- Sociologists in Motion
- Student Activities Council
- Student Members of the American Chemical Society
- Student Nurses' Association
- Student Tennessee Education Association
- Students In Free Enterprise
- The American Institute of Graphic Arts
- The Torch
- Union Association of Photographers
- Union Broadcasting Society
- Union Pre-Law Society
- Union Triathlon Club
- Union Wrestling Club
- Young Alums
- Zeta Tau Alpha